long ago ideas

“When we are tired, we are attacked by ideas we conquered long ago." - Friedrich Nietzsche. Long ago, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery conquered false claims that the Book of Mormon was fiction or that it came through a stone in a hat. But these old claims have resurfaced in recent years. To conquer them again, we have to return to what Joseph and Oliver taught.

Friday, June 21, 2024

Joseph Smith's 1832 History and Jonathan Edwards

Joseph Smith's 1832 history
(click to enlarge)

The presence in Joseph Smith's own writing of nonbiblical language that uses Edwards word and phrases is now apparent.

Here's an example from his 1832 History.



Annotation of JS 1832 History

It's interesting to see how the part that Frederick G. Williams wrote has mainly biblical allusions in terms of language, which part of what Joseph wrote has more nonbiblical language (words and phrases) found in the work of Jonathan Edwards.

This annotation includes the notes from the Joseph Smith Papers.


Bold = KJV (234)

Blue = nonbiblical BofM/D&C w/o JE (167)

Red = nonbiblical BofM/D&C and JE (219 words)


Frederick G. Williams handwriting:

A History of the life of Joseph Smith Jr. an account of his marvilous[1] experience[2] and of all the mighty acts[3] which he doeth in the name of Jesus Ch[r]ist[4] the son of the living God[5] of whom he beareth record[6] and also an account of the rise of the church of Christ[7] in the eve of time according as the Lord brought forth and established by his hand <firstly> he receiving the testamony from on high[8] seccondly the ministering of Angels[9] thirdly the reception of the holy Priesthood by the ministring of—Aangels to adminster the letter of the Law <Gospel[10]> <the Law and commandments as they were given unto him> and <the> ordinencs, forthly a confirmation and reception of the high Priesthood after the holy order[11] of the son of the living God[12] power and and ordinence from on high[13] to preach the Gospel[14] in the administration and demonstration of the spirit[15]


Joseph’s handwriting begins:

the Kees of the Kingdom[16] of God confered upon[17] him[18] and the continuation of the blessings of God[19] to him &c——

I was born in the town of Charon [Sharon] in the <State> of Vermont North America on the twenty third day of December AD 1805 of goodly Parents[20] who spared no pains[21] to instruct<ing> me in <the> christian religion[22][.] at the age of about ten years my Father Joseph Smith Seignior moved to Palmyra Ontario County[23] in the State of New York and being in indigent circumstances[24] were obliged[25] to labour hard[26] for the support of[27] a large Family[28] having nine chilldren[29] and as it required the exertions[30] of all that were able to render any assistance[31] for the support of the Family[32] therefore we were deprived of the bennifit[33] of an education suffice[34] it to say I was mearly[35] instructtid in reading writing and the ground <rules> of Arithmatic which const[it]uted[36] my whole literary acquirements.[37][38] At about the age of twelve years my mind become seriously imprest[39] with regard to[40] the all importent concerns[41] of for the wellfare[42] of my immortal Soul[43] which led me to searching the scriptures[44] believeing as I was taught, that they contained the word of God[45] thus applying myself[46] to them and my intimate acquaintance[47] with those of differant denominations[48] led me to marvel[49] excedingly for I discovered that they did not adorn their profession[50] by a holy walk[51] and Godly conversation agreeable to[52] what I found contained in that sacred depository this was a grief to my Soul[53] thus from the age of twelve years to fifteen I pondered many things[54] in my heart concerning[55] the sittuation of the world of mankind[56] the contentions and divi[si]ons[57] the wicke[d]ness and abominations[58] and the darkness which[59] pervaded[60] the minds of mankind[61] my mind become excedingly distressed[62] for I become convicted of my sins[63] and by searching the scriptures[64] I found that <mankind[65]> did not come unto the Lord[66] but that they had apostatised[67] from the true and liveing faith[68] and there was no society[69] or denomination that built upon[70] the gospel of Jesus Christ[71] as recorded[72] in the new testament[73] and I felt to mourn[74] for my own sins[75] and for the sins of the world[76] for I learned in the scriptures[77] that God was the same yesterday to day and forever[78] that he was no respecter to persons[79] for he was God for I looked upon the sun the glorious luminary[80] of the earth and also the moon rolling in their magesty through the heavens[81] and also the stars shining in their courses[82] and the earth also upon which I stood and the beast of the field[83] and the fowls of heaven[84] and the fish of the waters[85] and also man walking forth upon the face of the earth[86] in magesty and in the strength of beauty[87] whose power and intiligence in governing[88] the things which are so exceding great and marvilous[89] even in the likeness[90] of him who created <them> and when I considered upon[91] these things my heart exclaimed[92] well hath the wise man said[93] <it is a> fool <that> saith in his heart there is no God[94] my heart exclaimed all all these bear testimony[95] and bespeak[96] an omnipotant[97] and omnipreasant[98] power a being who makith Laws and decreeeth and bindeth all things in their bounds[99][100] who filleth Eternity who was and is and will be from all Eternity to Eternity[101] and when <I> considered all these things[102] and that <that> being seeketh such to worshep him as worship him in spirit and in truth[103] therefore I cried unto the Lord[104] for mercy[105] for there was none else[106] to whom I could go[107] and obtain mercy[108] and the Lord heard my cry[109] in the wilderness[110] and while in <the> attitude of[111] calling upon the Lord[112] <in the 16th year of my age>[113] a piller of light[114] above the brightness of the sun[115] at noon day[116] come down from above and rested upon me and I was filled with the spirit of god[117] and the <Lord> opened the heavens upon me[118] and I saw the Lord[119] and he spake unto me saying Joseph <my son> thy sins are forgiven thee[120]. go thy <way> walk in my statutes and keep my commandments[121] behold I am the Lord of glory[122] I was crucifyed for the world[123] that all those who believe on my name[124] may have Eternal life[125] <behold> the world lieth in sin[126] at this time and none doeth good no not one[127] they have turned asside[128] from the gospel[129] and keep not <my> commandments[130] they draw near to me with their lips[131] while their hearts are far from me[132] and mine anger is kindling[133] against the inhabitants of the earth [134]to visit them[135] acording to thir ungodliness[136] and to bring to pass that which <hath> been spoken by the mouth of the prophets[137] and Ap[o]stles[138][139] behold and lo[140] I come quickly[141] as it [was? is?] written of me[142] in the cloud[143] <clothed> in the glory of my Father[144][145] and my soul was filled[146] with love[147] and for many days I could rejoice with great Joy[148] and the Lord was with me but could find none that would believe the hevnly vision[149] nevertheless I pondered these things in my heart[150] about that time my mother and[151] but after many days...


[1] “marvellous” OT (18) NT (6) JE (154) “marvelous” BM (54) DC (12) PGP (1) JE (164)

[2] JSP: In contemporaneous religious writing, “experience” often denoted personal enlightenment through divine communication. (“Experience,” in Oxford English Dictionary, 3:430.)  OT (2) NT (2) DC (3)

[3] “mighty acts” Psalm 106:2; 145:4, 12; 150:2. JE (17) “mighty acts which he does.”

[4] “in the name of Jesus Christ” Acts 2:38; 3:6; 16:18; BM (2) DC (6) PGP (1) JE (12)

[5] “in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God” only in Mormon 9:29 and D&C 55:2. “the Son of the living God” in Matt. 16:16; John 6:69; BM (5) DC (5) JE (23).

[6] “beareth record” only in BM (4) DC (4) PGP (3). “bear record” in NT (4) BM (25) DC (19) PGP (1) JE (5)

[7] “the rise of the Church of Christ” only in D&C 20:1.

[8] “from on high” OT (4) NT (2) BM (1) DC (13), none with “testimony”

[9] “ministering of angels” not in Bible. BM (3) DC (7) PGP (2) JE “there is also reason to __ that the ministering of angels is made use of” ministering spirits in Heb. 1:14; Moroni 10:14; D&C 76:88.

[10] D&C 107:20 (April 1835, but verses 60-100 are from Nov. 11, 1831) “The power and authority of the lesser, or Aaronic Priesthood, is to hold the keys of the ministering of angels, and to administer in outward ordinances, the letter of the gospel, the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins, agreeable to the covenants and commandments.”

[11] “holy order” OT (0) NT (0) BM (10) DC (1) JE (1) “the Priests were reckoned a very holy order of men.”

[12] See previous note on this phrase.

[13] See previous note on this phrase.

[14] “to preach the gospel” OT (0) NT (6) BM (0) DC (4) PGP (1) JE (50)

[15] “demonstration of the spirit” 1 Cor. 2:4; D&C 99:2 “in the demonstration of my Holy Spirit” JE (7)

[16] “keys of the kingdom” Matt. 16:19, JST Luke 3:8, D&C (19); D&C 27:13 “unto whom I have committed the keys of my kingdom.” JE “to them are committed the keys of the kingdom.”

[17] “conferred upon” OT (0) NT (0 BM (3) DC (5) PGP (1) JE (11, 3 in 8 vol.) See Matthew 16:19; Revelation, 30 Oct. 1831 [D&C 65:2]; and Revelation, 15 Mar. 1832 [D&C 81:2]

[18] JSP: See Matthew 16:19; Revelation, 30 Oct. 1831 [D&C 65:2]; and Revelation, 15 Mar. 1832 [D&C 81:2]

[19] “blessings of God” not in KJV. BM (1) JE (6).

[20] JSP: Compare Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 5 [1 Nephi 1:1].

[21] “spared no pains” not in scriptures, but JE (The clergy of France have spared no pains, like wise persons they considered spared no pains nor cost, proper means should be neglected no pains or strength should be spared)

[22] JE - Stockbridge Indian “who had been instructed in the Christian religion”

[23] JSP: Palmyra was part of Ontario County until April 1823, when it became part of newly created Wayne County. (An Act to Erect a New County, from Parts of the Counties of Ontario and Seneca, by the Name of Wayne, and For Other Purposes [11 Apr. 1823], Laws of the State of New-York [1823], chap. 138, pp. 158–162.)

[24] “indigent circumstances” not in scriptures, but in Edwards “get above their mean & indigent circumstances,” “in the most indigent circumstances”

[25] “obliged” not in KJV. BM (7) DC (1) JE (1310)

[26] “Labor (labour) hard” is not in scriptures. JE (4) “obliged from day to day to labor hard”

[27] “the support of” BM (5) DC (1) JE (40)

[28] “large family” JE (5)

[29] JSP: When the Smith family moved to Palmyra there were only eight children (two children had died in infancy). Lucy, the ninth child, was born 18 July 1821, when JS was fifteen.

[30] “exertions” only in JS-H 1:60, Edwards (42, 2 in 8 Vols.)

[31] “Assistance” not in KJV. BM (8) DC (6) JE (698)

[32] JE (1)

[33] “deprived of the benefit” not in Bible, but in Edwards. “consists in being deprived of a benefit”

[34] OT (6) NT (1) BM (5) DC (3) JE (90)

[35] “merely” BM (1) JE (946)

[36] “constituted” PGP (2) JE (230)

[37] “acquirement” JE (1). “acquire(d)” BM (1) JE ( 38 + 135)

[38] JSP: The Smith family embarked on a new effort to clear land and establish a family farm in New York after years of financial misfortune in Vermont and New Hampshire. JS and his siblings did, however, receive some formal schooling in their youth and probably received some rudimentary education at home. (See Palmyra, NY, Attendance record, first school district, Sept.–Nov. 1817, Macedon Historical Society, Macedon, NY; see also Marquardt, Rise of Mormonism, 33–34.)

[39] “seriously impressed” not in scriptures, but in Edwards “get your minds more deeply impressed with” “if your mind be impressed with” “may have his mind heart impressed with” “imaginations are more strongly impressed with”

[40] “with regard to” not in scriptures, but in Edwards (875). “some of my thoughts with regard to some of the concerns of the difficult day” “with regard to their concerns one with another” “with regard to the concerns of your souls”

[41] “important concerns” not in scriptures, but in Edwards (7) “the important concerns of eternity” “all the important concerns of life and especially in the great concern of our souls salvation”

[43] “immortal soul(s)” unique to BofM (2) and in Edwards (69)

[44] “searching the scriptures” Edwards (10)

[45] “contained the word of God” JE “the word of G. contained in the holy SS.” “the word of God , contained in the Old and New Testament” “the Word of God, of things that are contained in the holy Scriptures”

[46] “applying myself” Edwards (4), “apply myself” Edwards (27)

[47] “intimate acquaintance” Edwards 16 (he had a more full and intimate acquaintance with what belonged to that sort of religion)

[48] “different denominations” JE “borne the name of Christians, of all denominations, however different in their opinions” “of all denominations, and opinions” “any particular party of denomination of Christians, in opposition to others” “of Christians of all denominations” “of any particular sect or denomination”

[49] "marvel” OT (1) NT (10) BM (7) DC (5) PGP (0) JE (25)

[50] “adorn their profession” not in the scriptures. Edwards 7 “adorn their profession, be serviceable to mankind” “our extraordinary obligation to adorn our profession by our practice” “many truly Godly persons don’t adorn their profession as they ought to do but on the contrary in some things to dishonor it” “let us adorn our profession”

[51] “holy walk” D&C 20:69 (“godly walk and conversation”); 1 Pet. 1:15 (“be ye holy in all manner of conversation”); 2 Pet. 3:11 (“what manner of persons ought ye to be in all holy conversation and godliness”); JE (Christians they don’t honor & Glo. G. & their profession by a holy walk”) (“the remembrance of her holy walk”) (“there appeared in him an holy walk & conversation.”) (bringing them to Christ & a holy walk with God.”) (“are of godly conversation”)

[52] “agreeable to” D&C (10) JE (2096)

[53] “a grief to my soul” not in scriptures, but JE (“which was a grief and burden to my soul”)

[54] “many things” hundreds of times in scriptures and JE.

[55] “in my heart concerning” not in scriptures, but JE. “in mine heart concerning” only in Eccles. 3:18, which Edwards misquotes as “I said in my heart concerning…”

[56] “world of mankind” not in scriptures, but JE (218) “situation and circumstances of the world of mankind.”

[57] “contentions and divisions” not in scriptures, but JE “there were contentions and divisions among them” occasioned by their divisions and hot contentions” “the many divisions and contentions that subsist among Protestants”

[58] “wickedness and abominations” BM (26) DC (2) JE “How many sorts of wickedness have you been guilty of? How manifold have been the abominations of your life?” “their rebellion and wickedness, but may cast away their abominations”

[59] “darkness which” OT (1) NT (0) BM (4) JE (9) “darkness which blinds men”

[60] “pervaded” not in scriptures, but JE “the universal spirit that pervades” “who penetrates and pervades all beings” “one spirit which, like a soul, pervades the whole world”

[61] “minds of mankind” not in scriptures, but JE “determining the minds of all mankind” “implanted in the minds of all mankind” “the mind of mankind necessarily supposes” “to taint the minds of mankind”

[62] “exceedingly distressed” not in scriptures, but JE “I was also exceedingly distressed” “were exceedingly perplexed and distressed”

[63] “convicted of sin” not in scriptures, but JE “be convicted of sin through the law”

[64] “searching the scriptures” not in scriptures, but JE “satisfied by searching the Scriptures” “”in searching the Scriptures to see” “be engaged in searching the scriptures”

[65] “mankind” in OT, NT, BM, DC, PGP, JE

[66] “come unto the Lord”  unique to 2 Ne. 9:41 and Mormon 9:27. “unto the Lord” 100s in KJV, BM and JE

[67] “apostatized” D&C 85:11; JE “this world of mankind that had apostatized” “till then mankind was not so universally apostatized from the true God” “mankind rebelled and apostatized” “mankind soon apostatized”

[68] “true and living faith” not in scriptures, but JE “love is centered in a true and living faith”; BM DC both have “true and living God” JE also “God’s people are descended from the true and living God without a fiction.”

[69] “no society” not in scriptures, but JE “no society are so defended as the church” “no society of Christians” “there is no society more joyf. Than that lives so happily as they that live united in peace & love”

[70] “built upon” OT (0) NT (1) BM (11) DC (1) PGP (1) JE (35) “hope that is built upon a gospel foundation”

[71] “gospel of Jesus Christ” OT (0) NT (1) BM (2) DC (5) PGP (1 AF) JE (110)

[72] “as recorded” not in scriptures, but in JE “as recorded,” “we have it recorded” “we find recorded”

[73] JSP: Like the Disciples of Christ and other primitivists, JS believed that the mainline churches of his day had strayed from the order and teachings of the New Testament church. (See Hughes and Allen, Illusions of Innocence, chap. 6.)

[74] “felt to mourn” not in scriptures. JE “felt my soul melt and mourn” “felt his soul mourn for sin”

[75] “my own sins” not in scriptures. JE “confessing my own sins and misery” “my own sins are pardoned”

[76] “sins of the world” OT (0) NT (0) BM (17) DC (6) PGP (0) JE (7) [John 1:29 “sin of the world” 1 John 2:2 “for the sins of the whole world“]

[77] “in the scriptures” NT (2) BM (1) JE (91).

[78] “same yesterday, today, and forever” NT (1) (Heb 13:8) “Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever.” BM (7) DC (1) [he, the Spirit, God, I, thou] “the same yesterday, today, and forever” JE (25) “he is the same yesterday, today, and forever.” “the same yesterday, and to day [and for ever]” “the same yesterday, today, and forever” “he is the same yesterday to day & forever”

[79] “no respecter to persons” NT (1) DC (3) JE (1) all “no respecter of persons”

[80] “glorious luminary” not in scriptures. JE: “is the glorious luminary and sun of the heavenly world”

[81] “through the heavens” only in Abraham, Fac. 2. JE: “the sun rises to fly through the heavens” “when the sun has finished his course through the heavens”

[82] “in their courses” OT (3) Jud. 5:20 “stars in their courses fought” JE: “sun, moon and stars in their courses, from the beginning, fought for us.”

[83] “beast of the field” OT (10) PGP (6) JE (7) [“beasts of the field” OT (29) BM (1) DC (5) PGP (1)]

[84] “fowls of heaven” OT (5) DC (2) JE (22)

[85] “fish of the waters” only Ether 2:2; “fish of the sea” OT (4) NT (0) BM (0) DC (2) PGP (3) JE (9)

[86] “the face of the earth” OT (28) NT (1) BM (48) DC (7) PGP (4) JE (197) “If we, when walking upon the face of the earth”

[87] “strength of beauty” nowhere, but “strength and beauty” in Psalm 96:6 and JE, quoting Psalm and also “he girdeth those with strength and beauty”

[88] “governing” only in Abraham 3:3 and Fac 2. JE (“governing the” 64) “the greatest regard to in his governing the world and regulating things in this created system of intelligence” “He continually exerts the same power in upholding and governing the world which he did in creating it.”

[89] “great and marvelous” [NT “marvellous”] OT (0) NT (2) BM (24) DC (6) JE (5)

[90] “in the likeness” OT (1) NT (4) BM (1) DC (3) PGP (1) JE (22)

[91] “considered upon” not in scriptures, but JE “if Persons Considered upon what a slender thread they hung over the Boundless Gulf of Eternity they could not but be very uneasy till they had got into…

[92] “exclaimed” only in Mosiah 18:11 and JE (1).

[93] “the wise man said” not in scriptures. JE – “God, who, as the wise man said, is above all”

[94] “said in his heart, there is no God” Psalm 14:1 (include. JST); 53:1. JE quotes and paraphrases. “the fool hath said in his heart no God. The words “there is” are not in the original but were put in by the translators…”

[95] “bear testimony” OT (0) NT (0) BM (3) DC (7) PGP (1) JE (27)

[96] “bespeak” not in scriptures but in JE (2)

[97] “omnipotent” NT (1) BM (6) JE (111)

[98] “omnipresent” not in scriptures but in JE (10) “he is omniscient, omnipresent, etc.” “God’s omnipresence and omniscience”

[99] “their bounds” D&C 88:90 “beyond their bounds” D&C 122:9 “their bounds are set, they cannot pass” JE: “the fixed stars are beyond their bounds” “though their course is so mighty swift, yet God easily keeps them within their bounds” “their bounds are fixed that they cannot pass.”

[100] JSP: The teleological argument for the existence of God, the “argument from design,” was standard in the Christian tradition of the philosophy of religion. (“Design Argument,” in Dictionary of the History of Ideas, 1:670–677; Cosslett, Science and Religion in the Nineteenth Century, 25; see also Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 308 [Alma 30:44]; and Revelation, 27–28 Dec. 1832 [D&C 88:36–47].)  

[101] Mosiah 3:5 “[which 1830] who was, and is from all eternity to all eternity.” Rev. 4:8 “which was, and is, and is to come.” Note: Joseph was already changing “which” to “who” here. Edwards “Praise God for his holiness and Eternity and immutability [quotes Rev. 4:8]

[102] “all these things” is ubiquitous in all the scriptures. “consider these things” Mosiah 29:8; D&C 45:73; “when he had considered the thing” Acts 12:12; “I would that ye should consider that the things which have been written… are true” 1 Ne. 22:30; “I have considered the things which thou sentest to me for” 1 Kings 5:8 JE: “if you have considered the things” “when we consider the things” “I will consider the things”

[103] Paraphrasing John 4:23-4 “when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him.” Quoted by Edwards. “in spirit and in truth” also in Alma 34:38, 43:10.

[104] “cried unto the Lord” OT (29) NT (0) BM (5) DC (0) PGP (6) JE (5)

[105] “for mercy” OT (1) NT (0) BM (3) DC (0) PGP (0) JE (144) Alma 34:18 ”cry unto him for mercy” Alma 38:8 “I did cry out unto the Lord Jesus Christ for mercy”

[106] “none else” OT (12) (mostly Isaiah 45, 46, 47) NT (0) BM (2) DC (7) PGP (0) JE (66) “there is none else we can go to” “there is none else to go to”

[107] See JE in previous note.

[108] “obtain mercy” OT (0) NT (3) BM (1) DC (2) PgP (0) JE (52) Matt. 5:7, 3 Ne. 12:7 “they shall obtain mercy”

[109] “heard my cry” Psalm 40:1, 2 Ne. 4:23, Jacob 7:22 [JE quoted Psalm 40:1]

[110] “cry in the wilderness” only in 1 Ne 10:8 (not in JE) “even he should go forth and cry in the wilderness.” “in the wilderness” is found dozens of times in OT, NT, BM, DC.

[111] “attitude of” only in BM (5). “attitude” not in the scriptures otherwise, or JE. Hervey, Meditations, “expiring in the attitude of adoration.”

[112] “calling upon the Lord” JS-H 1:68; D&C 136:32. JE “[Bible verses] all of which speak of calling on the Lord.”

[113] JSP: Insertion in the handwriting of Frederick G. Williams. JS later recounted that this vision occurred in early spring 1820, when he was fourteen years old. (JS History, vol. A-1, 3; compare JS, Journal, 9–11 Nov. 1835; JS, “Church History,” Times and Seasons, 1 Mar. 1842, 3:706; and JS, “Latter Day Saints,” in Rupp, He Pasa Ekklesia, 404–405.)

[114] “pillar of light” not in scriptures but JE “[Constantine] being, as is said, encouraged by a vision of a pillar of light in the heavens in the form of a cross…and the night following by Christ’s appearing to him in a dream.”

[115] “above the brightness of the sun” Acts 26:13, D&C 110:3, JS-H 1:16 JE (6)

[116] “sun at noon day” only in 1 Nephi 1:9 and JE “as plain as the sun at noon day”

[117] “filled with the spirit of God” Alma 18:16; Exodus 31:3, 35:31 “filled him with the spirit of God” JE misquotes Exodus 31:3 “filled with the spirit of God”

[118] “heavens open” OT (11) NT (18) BM (10) DC (5) PGP (1) JE “after the heavens were opened over his head”

[119] JSP: JS later recounted that he saw two “personages,” that one appeared after the other, and that “they did in reality speak unto me, or one of them did.” Other accounts identify the two personages as God the Father and Jesus Christ. (JS History, vol. A-1, 3; JS, Journal, 9–11 Nov. 1835.)

[120] “sins are forgiven” OT (0) NT (3) BM (1) DC (12) JE (29)

[121] “walk in my statutes and keep my commandments” only in Leviticus 26:3; “walk in my statutes” only in OT (5); variations only in OT (25); quoted in JE (but keep judgments, not commandments) “walk in” OT (59) NT (21) BM (20) DC (6) JE (466).

[122] “Lord of glory” only in 1 Cor. 2:8 and James 2:1 (including JST). JE quoted it 17 times.

[123] “crucified for the world” only in D&C 76:41.

[124] “believe on my name” only in BM (2) DC (6)

[125] “may have eternal life” only in Matt. 19:16, Mosiah 18:9.

[126] “world lieth in sin” only in D&C 49:20 and 84:49. “world lieth in wickedness” 1 John 5:19. JE “world that lies in ignorance and wickedness” “the whole world lieth in wickedness.”

[127] “none doeth good” only in D&C 82:6; “none that doeth good, no, not one” OT (4) Psalms 14, 53; Rom. 3:12; Moroni 10:25; D&C 35:12.

[128] “turned aside” OT (16) NT (3) rest (0) JE (37)

[129] “from the gospel” only in 1 Ne. 13:26 “they have taken away from the gospel of the lamb” JE (14)

[130] “keep not my commandments” Psalm 89:31; D&C 18:46; 95:12; 108:8

[131] “draw near to me with their lips” only in JS-H 1:19. Isa. 29:13 and 2 Ne. 27:25 “forasmuch as this people draw near [unto] me with their mouth, and with their lips do honor me.” JE: “draw near to God with their lips”

[132]while their hearts are far from me” JS-H 1:19 “but their hearts are far from me” Isa. 29:13 and 2 Ne. 27:25, “have removed their heart far from me” Matt. 15:8 “This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me.” JE: “while their hearts are far from him.”

[133] “mine anger is kindling” “kindling” not in the scriptures. JE: kindling 23x, but not with anger. “you have ever since been kindling & enraging the flames of the fiery lake that gulf that you hang over”. “mine anger is kindled” in Hosea 8:5, D&C 5:8, 56:1, 60:2, Moses 8:15, JST Exodus 33:20.

[134] “against the inhabitants of the earth” D&C 82:6; Jer. 25:30 “against all the inhabitants of the earth”

[135] “visit them” OT (4) NT (0) BM (12) DC (1) PGP (1) JE (7)

[136] “ungodliness” NT (4) BM (1) JE (44) “to deny ourselves of ungodliness”

[137] “the mouth of the prophets” only Zechariah 8:9 and JE “God spake by the mouth of the prophets.” “the mouths of the prophets” in Alma 40:22, 24; D&C 58:8; 109:23.

[138] “prophets and apostles” OT (0) NT (1) BM (1) DC (6). D&C 66:2 has “as it was written by the prophets and apostles in days of old.”

[139] JSP: The importance of the biblical prophecies appears as a persistent theme in JS’s religious thought. Pomeroy Tucker, who was acquainted with JS during their adolescence, affirmed JS’s claim to have studied the Bible and reminisced that the “Prophecies and Revelations were his special forte.” Whereas the prophets of the Old Testament promised the restoration of Israel and a Messianic reign, Jesus and John proclaimed a future apocalypse and a millennium of peace. JS’s earliest revelations conveyed the message of both an end-time restoration and an imminent apocalypse. (Tucker, Origin, Rise, and Progress of Mormonism, 17.)

[140] “behold and lo, I come quickly” is found only in D&C 99:5, dated August 29, 1832, possibly around the same time this history was written. “Behold, I come quickly” is found in Rev. 3:11, 22:7, 12, and D&C 35:27, 39:24, 41:4, 54:10.

[141] “I come quickly” NT (4) (Revelation) D&C (10) JE (22)

[142] Could be “was” or “is.” “As it is written of me” only in D&C 99:5. “As it is written” is common: OT (14) NT (31) BM (0) DC (8). “As it was written” appears in D&C 66:2, 2 Chron. 30:5, and 1 Kings 21:11. There are no instances of “as it was written of me.”

[143] “clouds of heaven” OT (1) NT (3) BM (0) DC (3) PGP JS-M (2)

[144] JST Revelation 1:7 “For behold, he cometh in the clouds with ten thousands of his saints in the kingdom, clothed with the glory of his Father.” Matt. 16:27 “For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels.” Mark 8:38 “when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.” JE: “Christ will appear in the glory of his father with all the holy angels coming on the clouds of heaven [a paraphrase of Matt. 16:27 and Mark 8:38]”

[145] JSP: Christ’s declaration is saturated with scriptural allusions and phraseology from both the Bible and JS’s revelatory texts. See, for example, Leviticus 26:3; Vision, 16 Feb. 1832 [D&C 76:41]; Revelation, ca. 7 Mar. 1831 [D&C 45:8]; Revelation, 22–23 Sept. 1832 [D&C 84:49]; Psalm 14:3; Isaiah 29:13; Deuteronomy 29:27; and Matthew 24:30.  

[146] “soul was filled” only in Alma 36:20, Mormon 6:8, Alma 51:14

[147] “soul was filled with love” only in JE “my soul was filled with light and love”

[148] “rejoice with great joy” OT (1) NT (0) BM (0) JE (1) Matt 2:10 (JE quotes 7x) “rejoiced with exceeding great joy” Mosiah 3:13, 5:4 “rejoice with exceedingly great joy” 1 Chron. 29:9, 1 Kings 1:40 “rejoiced with great joy”

[149] Acts 26:19 “I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision.”

[150] Luke 2:19 “She kept all these things and pondered them in her heart.”

[151] JSP: This canceled fragment may refer to the Presbyterian affiliation of JS’s mother and three of his siblings. In 1838, JS recounted that they “were proselyted to the Presbyterian faith” in connection with the revivalism preceding his vision. (“Records of the Session of the Presbyterian Church in Palmyra,” 10, 24, and 29 Mar. 1830; JS History, vol. A-1, 2.)

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