long ago ideas

“When we are tired, we are attacked by ideas we conquered long ago." - Friedrich Nietzsche. Long ago, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery conquered false claims that the Book of Mormon was fiction or that it came through a stone in a hat. But these old claims have resurfaced in recent years. To conquer them again, we have to return to what Joseph and Oliver taught.

Monday, June 24, 2024

Intertextuality: Alma 11

As we continue to post examples of intertextuality, we see that intertextuality between the Book of Mormon and the King James Bible is only a small part of the picture. 

In my view, this degree of intertextuality explains what Joseph Smith meant when he said he had "an intimate acquaintance with those of different denominations."


Annotation of Alma 11 (work in progress)

Alma 11 is a good example because it shows that a high percentage of Book of Mormon language is also KJV language. Few of the KJV words/phrases are not also found in Edwards, including the so-called "blended" passages.

The blue Book of Mormon words/phrases in the annotation are nonbiblical and also not found in Edwards. In some cases noted below, the nonbiblical language is close to Edwards (e.g., plural instead of singular). There are several examples in the Book of Mormon of paraphrased or misquoted passages from the KJV that are identical to paraphrased or misquoted KJV passages in Edwards' works.

The red words/phrases are nonbiblical Book of Mormon wording that are also found in Edwards' works.

Naturally, Edwards is not the only person who ever used this nonbiblical Book of Mormon terminology. English is a common language or we couldn't understand one another. But the ready availability of Edwards' works in Palmyra during Joseph's youth indicates that Edwards was a possible source for Joseph's vocabulary that he used when translating the plates.


Bold = KJV 

Blue = nonbiblical BofM/D&C w/o JE 

Red = nonbiblical BofM/D&C and JE 


Chapter 11


The Nephite monetary system is set forth—Amulek contends with Zeezrom—Christ will not save people in their sins—Only those who inherit the kingdom of heaven are saved—All men will rise in immortality—There is no death after the Resurrection. About 82 B.C.


1 Now it was in the law of Mosiah that every man who was a judge of the law[1], or those who were appointed to be judges, should receive wages[2] according to the time[3] which they labored to judge those who were brought before[4] them to be judged[5].

2 Now if a man owed another[6], and he would not pay that which he did owe, he was complained of[7] to the judge; and the judge executed authority, and sent forth officers that the man should be brought before him; and he judged the man according to the law[8] and the evidences[9] which were brought against him, and thus the man was compelled to pay that which he owed, or be stripped[10], or be cast out from among the people as a thief and a robber[11].

3 And the judge received for his wages according to his time[12]—a senine of gold for a day, or a senum of silver, which is equal to a senine of gold; and this is according to the law which was given.

4 Now these are the names of the different pieces of their gold, and of their silver, according to their value. And the names are given by the Nephites, for they did not reckon after the manner of the Jews[13] who were at Jerusalem; neither did they measure after the manner of the Jews; but they altered their reckoning and their measure, according to the minds[14] and the circumstances of the people[15], in every generation[16], until the reign of the judges, they having been established by king Mosiah.

5 Now the reckoning is thus—a senine of gold, a seon of gold, a shum of gold, and a limnah of gold.

6 A senum of silver, an amnor of silver, an ezrom of silver, and an onti of silver.

7 A senum of silver was equal to a senine of gold, and either for a measure of barley, and also for a measure of every kind of grain.

8 Now the amount of a seon of gold was twice the value of a senine.

9 And a shum of gold was twice the value of a seon.

10 And a limnah of gold was the value of them all.

11 And an amnor of silver was as great as two senums.

12 And an ezrom of silver was as great as four senums.

13 And an onti was as great as them all.

14 Now this is the value of the lesser numbers of their reckoning—

15 A shiblon is half of a senum; therefore, a shiblon for half a measure of barley.

16 And a shiblum is a half of a shiblon.

17 And a leah is the half of a shiblum.

18 Now this is their number, according to their reckoning[17].

19 Now an antion of gold is equal to three shiblons.

20 Now, it was for the sole purpose to get gain, because they received their wages according to their employ, therefore, they did stir up the people[18] to riotings[19], and all manner of[20] disturbances[21] and wickedness[22], that they might have more employ[23], that they might get money[24] according to[25] the suits[26] which were brought before them; therefore they did stir up the people against Alma and Amulek.

21 And this Zeezrom began to question[27] Amulek, saying: Will ye answer me a few questions[28] which I shall ask you? Now Zeezrom was a man who was expert[29] in the devices of the devil[30], that he might destroy that which was good[31]; therefore, he said unto Amulek: Will ye answer the questions[32] which I shall put unto you[33]?

22 And Amulek said unto him: Yea, if it be according to[34] the Spirit[35] of the Lord[36], which is in me[37]; for I shall say nothing[38] which is contrary to[39] the Spirit of the Lord. And Zeezrom said unto him: Behold, here are six onties of silver, and all these will I give thee if thou wilt deny the existence[40] of a Supreme Being[41].

23 Now Amulek said: O thou child of hell[42], why tempt ye me? Knowest thou that the righteous yieldeth to no such temptations?

24 Believest thou that there is no God? I say unto you, Nay, thou knowest that there is a God, but thou lovest that lucre more than him.

25 And now thou hast lied before God unto me. Thou saidst unto me—Behold these six onties, which are of great worth[43], I will give unto thee—when thou hadst it in thy heart to retain them[44] from me; and it was only thy desire that I should deny the true and living[45] God, that thou mightest have cause to destroy[46] me. And now behold, for this great evil[47] thou shalt have thy reward.

26 And Zeezrom said unto him: Thou sayest there is a true and living God?

27 And Amulek said: Yea, there is a true and living God.

28 Now Zeezrom said: Is there more than one God?

29 And he answered, No.

30 Now Zeezrom said unto him again: How knowest thou these things?

31 And he said: An angel hath made them known unto me.

32 And Zeezrom said again: Who is he that shall come? Is it the Son of God?

33 And he said unto him, Yea.

34 And Zeezrom said again: Shall he save his people in their sins[48]? And Amulek answered and said unto him: I say unto you he shall not, for it is impossible for him[49] to deny his word[50].

35 Now Zeezrom said unto the people: See that ye remember these things[51]; for he said there is but one God[52]; yet he saith that the Son of God shall come[53], but he shall not save his people—as though he had authority to command God[54].

36 Now Amulek saith again unto him: Behold thou hast lied, for thou sayest that I spake as though I had authority to command God because I said he shall not save his people in their sins.

37 And I say unto you again that he cannot save them in their sins; for I cannot deny[55] his word, and he hath said that no unclean thing can inherit[56] the kingdom of heaven; therefore, how can ye be saved[57], except ye inherit the kingdom of heaven[58]? Therefore, ye cannot be saved[59] in your sins[60].

38 Now Zeezrom saith again unto him: Is the Son of God the very Eternal Father[61]?

39 And Amulek said unto him: Yea, he is the very Eternal Father of heaven[62] and of earth, and all things which in them are[63]; he is the beginning and the end, the first and the last;

40 And he shall come into the world[64] to redeem his people[65]; and he shall take upon him[66] the transgressions of[67] those who believe on his name[68]; and these are they that shall have eternal life[69], and salvation cometh to none else[70].

41 Therefore the wicked remain[71] as though there had been[72] no redemption[73] made, except it be the loosing of[74] the bands of death[75]; for behold, the day cometh that all shall rise from the dead[76] and stand before God[77], and be judged according to their works[78].

42 Now, there is a death[79] which is called a temporal death[80]; and the death of Christ[81] shall loose the bands[82] of this temporal death, that all shall be raised[83] from this temporal death.

43 The spirit and the body[84] shall be reunited[85] again in its perfect form[86]; both limb[87] and joint[88] shall be restored to its proper frame[89], even as we now are[90] at this time[91]; and we shall be brought to stand[92] before God[93], knowing even as we know now, and have a bright recollection[94] of all our guilt[95].

44 Now, this restoration[96] shall come to all[97], both old and young[98], both bond and free[99], both male and female[100], both the wicked and the righteous[101]; and even there shall not so much as a hair of their heads[102] be lost; but every thing shall be restored[103] to its perfect frame[104], as it is now[105], or in the body[106], and shall be brought and be arraigned[107] before the bar of[108] Christ the Son[109], and God the Father[110], and the Holy Spirit[111], which is one Eternal God[112], to be judged according to their works[113], whether they be good or whether they be evil[114].

45 Now, behold, I have spoken unto you concerning the death[115] of the mortal body[116], and also concerning the resurrection[117] of the mortal body. I say unto you that this mortal body is raised to an immortal body[118], that is from death, even from the first death[119] unto life, that they can die no more[120]; their spirits uniting[121] with their bodies, never to be[122] divided; thus the whole becoming spiritual and immortal[123], that they can no more see corruption[124].

46 Now, when Amulek had finished these words[125] the people began again[126] to be astonished[127], and also Zeezrom began to tremble[128]. And thus ended the words of Amulek, or this is all that I have written.

(Alma 11–11:46)


[1] BM (1) JE (27)

[2] BM (1)

[3] OT (5) NT (1) BM (2) PGP (1)

[4] OT (3) NT (4) BM (20) DC (2) JE (38)

[5] NT (1) BM (22) DC (1) JE (154)

[6] BM (1)

[7] BM (1) JE (40)

[8] OT (8) NT (6) BM (27) DC (6) JE (41)

[9] OT (2) BM (3) DC (4) JE (749)

[10] OT (10) NT (2) BM (3) JE (80)

[11] NT (1) BM (1) JE (2)

[12] BM (1)

[13] NT (1) BM (5) JE (4)

[14] BM (2)

[15] BM (1) JE (1)

[16] BM (1) JE (4)

[17] BM (1) Note: JE “according to our reckoning” “according to the Jewish reckoning”

[18] “stir up” OT (10) NT (2) BM (22) DC (1) JE (238); “stir up the people BM (4) JE (1) Note: “stir up the hearts” BM 3, DC (1) JE (1)

[19] BM (1)

[20] ubiquitous

[21] BM (3) JE (14)

[22] “wickedness” is ubiquitous. “all manner of wickedness” is BM (0) JE (19)

[23] BM (1)

[24] BM (1) JE (22)

[25] ubiquitous

[26] BM (1)

[27] NT (1) BM (5)

[28] BM (1) JE (1) JE: “let me ask of you a few questions, and let your conscience make the answer.”

[29] OT (5) NT (1) BM (5) DC (1) JE (~10)

[30] BM (1) JE (1)

[31] OT (2 italics) BM (6) JE (3) Note: JE 2x quoting OT

[32] BM (2) JE (1)

[33] BM (1) Note: JE- “my people answered the questions put to them”

[34] ubiquitous

[35] “according to the spirit” NT (1) BM (19) JE (7)

[36] “according to the Spirit of the Lord” BM (1)

[37] BM (15) DC (1) Note: “that is in me” OT (1) NT (1) JE (12)

[38] OT (1) NT (3) BM (1) DC (2) JE (~30)

[39] NT (9) BM (20) DC (6) JE (1810)

[40] BM (2) JE (2)

[41] BM (1) DC (1) JE (60)

[42] NT (1) BM (2) JE (7)

[43] BM (10) JE (19)

[44] BM (4) JE (7)

[45] BM (6) DC (2) JE (2) “true and living faith” “true and living God”

[46] BM (1)

[47] OT (8) BM (7) DC (1) JE (39)

[48] BM (9) DC (1) PGP (1) JE (63)

[49] BM (1) JE (33)

[50] BM (2) JE (1)

[51] OT (1) BM (4) JE (2)

[52] NT (1) BM (2) JE (20)

[53] BM (3)

[54] BM (2)

[55] NT (2) BM (4) DC (1) PGP (1) JE (6)

[56] BM (2) Note: “no unclean thing” OT (2) BM (4) DC (1) PGP (1) JE (1) [paraphrasing Rev. 21:27]

[57] BM (1)

[58] BM (4) DC (2) Note: “inherit the kingdom of God” NT (4) BM (8) PGP (1) JE (22)

[59] NT (2) BM (3) JE (4)

[60] NT (5) BM (2) JE (26)

[61] BM (4)

[62] “father of heaven” BM 8)

[63] BM (1) Note: “in them are” BM (5) DC (2) JE (19)

[64] NT (4) BM (5) JE (93)

[65] BM (9) JE (3)

[66] BM (13) JE (37)

[67] OT (2) BM (3) DC (3) JE (6)

[68] NT (1) BM (12) JE (9)

[69] BM (5) DC (2) JE (12)

[70] BM (1) DC (2) JE (1)

[71] BM (1)

[72] BM (3)

[73] BM (6) JE (4)

[74] BM (1) JE (8)

[75] BM (12) DC (1) JE (1) Note: JE “bonds of death” 3x

[76] BM (3) “rise from the dead” NT (3) BM (7) DC (1) JE (24)

[77] NT (1) BM (8) DC (1) JE (10)

[78] BM (8) DC (1) JE (7)

[79] BM (1) JE (3) “Now there is a death that must precede this resurrection”

[80] BM (7) DC (1) JE (147)

[81] BM (4) JE (117)

[82] OT (2) BM (2) JE (2)

[83] OT (3) NT (2) BM (1) JE (33)

[84] BM (2) DC (2) Note: “spirit and body” BM (1) JE (3)

[85] BM (4) JE (14)  JE “the departed souls shall enter again into their bodies and be reunited to ‘em, never to be separated more.”

[86] BM (1) JE (2)

[87] BM (2) DC (2) JE (15)

[88] “limb and joint” BM (2)

[89] BM (1) JE (2)

[90] BM (1) JE (10)

[91] ubiquitous

[92] “brought to stand” BM (8) DC (1)

[93] “stand before God” NT (1) BM (8) DC (1) JE (10)

[94] “bright recollection” BM (1); “recollection” BM (1) JE (10)

[95] BM (2) JE (1)

[96] BM (19) DC (8) PGP (1) JE (290)

[97] BM (1) JE (1)

[98] OT (1) BM (5) DC (1) JE (10)

[99] BM (6) DC (1) JE (3)

[100] OT (5) NT (2) BM (7) DC (1) PGP (3) JE (18)

[101] BM (1) JE (2)

[102] BM (1)

[103] BM (14) JE (6)

[104] BM (2) DC (1)

[105] NT (1) BM (1) JE (38)

[106] NT (8) BM (3) DC (1) JE (213)

[107] BM (1) JE (24)

[108] OT (1) BM (6) JE (6) JE: “then shall he also stand at the bar of the saints”

[109] NT (10) BM (17) DC (11) PGP (1) JE (57)

[110] NT (13) BM (12) DC (4) JE (381)

[111] NT (2) BM (11) DC (19) PGP (1) JE (850)

[112] BM (1)

[113] BM (8) DC (1) JE (7) Note: JE cites and paraphrases Rev. 20:10

[114] BM (5)

[115] BM (5) JE (1)

[116] NT (1) BM (8) JE (7)

[117] BM (7) JE (7)

[118] BM (1)

[119] BM (3) DC (1) JE (10)

[120] BM (1) JE (12)

[121] BM (4) DC (1) JE (192)

[122] BM (1) JE (81)

[123] BM (1)

[124] OT (2) NT (3) BM (1) JE (25)

[125] BM (1)

[126] NT (1) BM (14) JE (4)

[127] OT (15) NT )19) BM (25) JE (112)

[128] “began to tremble” BM (4) PGP (1);  “tremble” OT (28) NT (1) BM (28) DC (16) PGP (1) JE (273)

No comments:

Post a Comment